加州青年监狱中有数十人感染了新冠病毒,囚犯应不应该提前释放呢?

 

See CHP arrest protesters calling for inmate clemency amid COVID at Gov. Newsom's homeCHP public information officer Greg Zumstein describes why protesters were arrested at Gov. Gavin Newsom's home in Fair Oaks on Monday, July 27, 2020. The protesters were demanding clemency for state inmates because of the COVID risk in prisons. BY DANIEL KIMin

CHP在纽森州长的家中逮捕了要求赦免囚犯的抗议者,公共信息官员Greg Zumstein描述了抗议者于2020年7月27日(周一)在加文纽森(Gavin Newsom)州长位于费尔奥克斯(Fair Oaks)的家中被捕的原因。抗议者要求赦免州囚犯,因为监狱里有感染病毒的危险。丹尼尔·金

 

Jane Faalataina’s son is among the 47 teens and young adults who have tested positive for COVID-19 inside the walls of California’s youth prisons. So far, his symptoms are minor, but he’s locked in an isolation unit inside a Stockton facility, and his studies are suffering, she said.

·法拉拉塔纳(Jane Faalataina)的儿子在加州青年监狱内被检测出病毒呈阳性,他是被检测出呈阳性的47名青少年中的一员,到目前为止,他的症状很轻微,但他被关在斯托克顿医院的隔离病房里,他的学业也受到了影响。

 

The state adult prison system has seen thousands of inmates released early as the coronavirus has surged through those institutions. Faalataina said she wonders why California isn’t willing to do the same for incarcerated youth offenders like her 20-year-old son.

由于冠状病毒在州成人监狱激增,已有数千名囚犯被提前释放。法拉塔娜说,她想知道为什么加州不愿意对像她20岁的儿子这样被监禁的青少年罪犯采取同样的措施。

 

There are around 775 teens and young adults in the facilities. Forty-seven inmates infected with COVID-19 represent 6% of the population.

在这所监狱中大约有775名青少年和年轻人。47名囚犯感染了新冠病毒,占人口的6%。

 

“Why not the youth?” Faalataina said this week in a phone interview from her home in San Francisco. “The youth are as important as adults. If you’re releasing adults … with COVID, why not for all?”

“为什么年轻人不可以?”Faalataina本周在旧金山家中接受电话采访时说。“年轻人和成年人一样重要。如果你释放成年人,为什么不释放所有人?”

 

Gov. Gavin Newsom has said he eventually wants to close the state’s youth prisons, which house offenders convicted of the most serious and violent crimes. And state lawmakers are currently weighing a reform plan that would shift custody of youth offenders to the county probation offices that run local juvenile detention facilities.

州长加文纽森(Gavin Newsom)表示,他希望最终关闭该州的青少年监狱,那里关押着被判犯有最严重暴力罪行的罪犯。州议员目前正在考虑一项改革计划,该计划将把青少年罪犯的拘留权转移到县感化办公室,该办公室负责管理当地的少管所。

 

But Newsom has not commented on releasing the state’s youth offenders early. Officials with the Department of Juvenile Justice deferred questions about releasing inmates to Newsom’s office, which didn’t comment Wednesday.

但是纽森没有对提前释放该州的青少年罪犯发表评论。少年司法局官员推迟了向纽森的办公室释放囚犯的问题,该办公室周三没有发表评论。

 

With no plans to release youth offenders early, prison officials said they have been taking steps to limit the spread of COVID-19 among the young people inside the state’s three youth lockups and one firefighting camp. They’re aged between 14 and 25 years old.

监狱官员表示,他们没有提前释放少年犯的计划,正在采取措施控制病毒在该州三个青少年禁闭室中传播。这些年轻人的年龄在14到25岁之间。

 

Officials have suspended all visits, and on Tuesday, officials announced they would no longer be accepting new youth offenders into the Ventura Youth Correctional Facility in Southern California to limit the disease’s spread. They said they were weighing whether to do the same at the two state youth lockups in Stockton, the N.A. Chaderjian and O.H. Close youth correctional facilities.

官员们已经暂停了所有的探访。周二,官员们宣布,他们将不再接收新的青少年罪犯进入南加州的文图拉青少年管教所,以限制疾病的传播。他们说,他们正在考虑是否要在斯托克顿的两个青少年禁闭所、N.A. Chaderjian和O.H. Close青少年教养所采取同样的措施。

 

“Our highest priority is the health and wellness of our youth and staff, and this pause, in cooperation with county courts and probation, will help us accomplish that goal,” Heather Bowlds, acting director of the Department of Juvenile Justice, said in a statement.

青少年司法部门代理主任Heather Bowlds在一份声明中说:“我们的首要任务是保护青少年和工作人员的健康,这次暂停,与县法院合作,缓刑,将帮助我们实现这一目标。”

 

It’s the second pause on intakes so far this year. On March 17, as the pandemic began to spread across the country, the state stopped accepting new youth offenders transferred from county detention centers. It resumed limited intakes again on May 26.

这是今年以来第二次暂停接收新的少年犯3月17日,随着疫情开始在全国蔓延,该州停止接收从县拘留中心转移过来的新少年犯。5月26日恢复。

 

while, staff members and inmates are tested for the new coronavirus regularly and the youths who test positive are placed in medical isolation in separate housing until testing shows they are free of the virus, or a 14-day medical isolation period expires, said Mike Sicilia, a spokesman for the agency.

该机构发言人迈克西西里亚(Mike Sicilia)说,与此同时,工作人员和囚犯定期接受新型冠状病毒检测,检测呈阳性的青少年将被隔离在单独的住房中,直到检测显示他们没有感染该病毒,即14天的隔离期结束。

 

So far, most have shown few or no symptoms and none of them have gotten so sick they required a stay at a hospital outside the prisons, Sicilia said.

西西里亚说,到目前为止,大多数人表现出很少或没有症状,也没有人病得太厉害,需要住进监狱外的医院。

 

Sicilia declined to say how many youths had tested positive at each of the youth facilities, citing patient privacy and the confidentiality granted to juvenile offenders.

西西里亚拒绝透露在每个青少年设施中有多少青少年检测呈阳性,理由是要保护病人的隐私,以及少年犯的机密性。

 

The outbreak inside the youth facilities comes as the adult prison system has been plagued with COVID-19 cases — prompting prison reform activists this week to chain themselves to the gate in front of Newsom’s home in Fair Oaks as they demanded more releases.

由于成人监狱系统一直被新冠肺炎病例所困扰,青少年监狱内的疫情爆发,促使监狱改革活动人士本周将自己锁在纽森位于Fair Oaks的家门前,要求释放更多囚犯。

 

More than 7,700 adult inmates have tested positive so far, with 859 new in the last 14 days, according to the state’s COVID-19 prison dashboard. Forty-seven have died.

据该州监狱监测数据显示,迄今为止,已有超过7,700名成年囚犯检测呈阳性,其中859名是在过去14天内新增的。47例已经死亡。

 

In response to the outbreak, the state began releasing some inmates with lower-level offenses and those who were nearing the end of their sentences as well as not taking inmates from county jails.

为了应对疫情,该州开始释放一些罪行较低的囚犯和即将服刑到期的囚犯,并且不再从县监狱接收新的囚犯。

 

As of Wednesday, the total adult population at the state’s 35 prisons, dozens of fire camps and smaller contract and reentry facilities was 107,507, down more than 15,000 since mid-March. Among the releases, 230 adult inmates were freed with active COVID-19 infections.

截至周三,该州35所监狱成年人口总数为107,507人,比3月中旬减少了1.5万多人。在释放的囚犯中,有230名成年囚犯因感染了新冠病毒病毒而获释。

 

In response to the protest at his Fair Oaks home, Newsom said releasing more

作为对在他位于Fair Oaks的家中抗议的回应,Newsom说过早释放过多会弊大于利。

 

“The worst thing we could do is mass release, where people are just released out to the streets and sidewalks, and end up in benches and up in parks, on the side of the road.” Newsom said Monday at a press conference. “That’s not compassion. That would be ... making the problem, in fact, worse.”

“我们能做的最糟糕的事情是大规模释放,人们只是被释放到街道和人行道上,最后在长椅上,公园里,路边。纽森在周一的新闻发布会上说。这样会让问题变得更糟。”

 

He didn’t address the outbreak at youth prisons.

他没有对青年监狱爆发的疫情发表讲话。

 

Critics of the state’s youth prison system and advocates of reform say there’s no reason not to release at least some of the youth offenders, especially since Newsom has made it a policy goal to disband the facilities anyway.

批评该州青少年监狱系统的人士和改革的倡导者说,没有理由不释放至少一部分青少年罪犯,特别是在纽森已经将解散这些设施作为政策目标之后。

 

“For many reasons, the time is important to move quickly with the realignment plan,” said Maureen Washburn, a policy analyst with the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice.

青少年与刑事司法中心的政策分析师莫林?沃什伯恩(Maureen Washburn)说,“出于许多原因,现在是时候迅速采取调整计划了。”

 

NEWSOM’S PLAN TO OVERHAUL CALIFORNIA JUVENILE JUSTICE

纽森计划对加州青少年司法进行彻底改革

 

Newsom signed an executive order that would have shifted the state’s Department of Juvenile Justice from the state’s prison system to the Health and Human Services Agency.

纽森签署了一项行政命令,将该州青少年司法部门从监狱系统转移到卫生部与人类服务机构。

 

Under the plan, the system would have been renamed the Department of Youth and Community Restoration. The plan was to have the agency assume responsibilities by this summer, but, with the pandemic in full swing, Newsom signed another order extending the deadline until next year.

根据该计划,该系统将被重新命名为青年和社区恢复部。该计划是让该机构在今年夏天承担责任,但随着疫情的发展,纽森签署了另一项命令,将最后期限延长到明年。

 

Then in May, the governor changed tact, announcing a budget proposal that would transfer management of youth offenders to county probation departments.

然后在5月,州长改变了策略,宣布了一项预算提案,将青少年罪犯的管理转移到县缓刑部门。

 

County probation chiefs weren’t opposed to the notion outright, saying their teams already handle youth offenders, but they were worried about the quick timeline and about not getting enough cash to expand juvenile detention centers and the programming needed to rehabilitate the state’s most dangerous and troubled youth.

县缓刑主管并没有直接反对这个想法,他们说他们的团队已经处理青少年罪犯,但他们担心时间太短,没有足够的资金来扩大青少年拘留中心,以及所需的计划来帮助该州最危险和问题少年康复。

 

“While we might be professionally prepared for this, we are not financially and structurally prepared for it, and this proposal, as written, does not do enough to get us there,” the Chief Probation Officers of California said in a May 14 statement.

加州首席缓刑官在5月14日的一份声明中说:“虽然我们可能在专业上做好了准备,但我们在财务和结构上都没有做好准备,而且这份书面提案不足以让我们达到目标。”

 

Some critics of Newsom’s plan fear cash-strapped counties can’t duplicate the levels of services necessary to rehabilitate troubled teens convicted of crimes including rape and murder.

一些对纽森计划持批评意见的人担心,资金紧张的县无法复制必要的服务水平,以帮助被判犯有强奸罪和谋杀罪的问题青少年康复。

 

“Juvenile halls are not treatment centers,” said Jay Aguas, a former Department of Juvenile Justice deputy director who’s a lecturer at Sacramento State University. “They do detention; that’s all they do.”

“青少年中心不是治疗中心,”前青少年司法部门副主任、萨克拉门托州立大学讲师杰伊·阿加斯(Jay Aguas)说。

 

PRISON JOBS ON THE LINE, CRITICS SAY

批评人士说,监狱工作岌岌可危

 

Poised to see potentially dozens of positions cut if the youth prisons are closed, unions representing workers in the youth facilities also have spoken out against the proposal, arguing the prison system has already instituted reforms aimed at helping troubled kids and is the best place to rehabilitate them.

如果青少年监狱关闭,可能会削减数十个职位,代表青少年设施工人的工会也公开反对这项提议,称监狱系统已经开始改革,旨在帮助有问题的孩子,这里是让他们康复的最佳场所。

 

But some youth justice critics say the prison unions are a driving force behind the decision not to release youth offenders during the pandemic.

一些青年司法批评人士说,监狱工会是在疫情期间不释放青年罪犯的决定背后的推动力。

 

If there are fewer youth offenders to guard, then there won’t be a need for as many corrections officers, said Alberto Gutierrez, a teacher who spent four years at N.A. Chaderjian Youth Correctional Facility in Stockton before quitting last summer.

教师阿尔贝托·古铁雷斯(Alberto Gutierrez)曾在斯托克顿的N.A. Chaderjian青年管教所工作了四年,去年夏天辞职。他说,如果需要看管的青少年罪犯减少了,那么就不需要那么多的教官了。

 

“They’re trying to save their jobs,” Gutierrez said. “They’re trying to fill up their halls as much as possible.”

古铁雷斯说:“他们在努力保住自己的工作。“他们试图不要减少。”

 

A spokeswoman for the California Correctional Peace Officers Association didn’t return a message Wednesday.

加州惩教和平官员协会(California Correctional Peace Officers Association)的发言人周三没有回复消息。

 

An additional worry for prison reform organizations is that as the pandemic drags on, the youth offenders who are required to take classes and rehabilitation programs in order to qualify for an early release will be falling behind under lockdowns and quarantines.

监狱改革组织的另一个担忧是,随着疫情的持续蔓延,那些为了获得提前释放的资格而被要求参加课程和康复项目的青少年罪犯将会在封锁和隔离中落后。

 

Instead of a traditional set sentence for an adult offender, the Board of Juvenile Hearings has broad discretion to release youth offenders early if the young men and women have shown they can change their behavior, excel in their studies and have participated in the various rehabilitative programs offered through the prison system.

与传统的对成年罪犯的判刑不同,青少年听证会委员会有广泛的自由裁量权,可以提早释放青少年罪犯,只要这些青少年已经表现出他们能够改变自己的行为,在学业上有优异表现,并且参加了监狱系统提供的各种康复计划。

 

“It’s not fulfilling the responsibilities as a component of the juvenile justice system,” said Washburn, of the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. “It slows down their progress and it means they have to spend more time behind bars, and that’s just unacceptable.

 

“这没有履行作为青少年司法系统组成部分的责任,”青少年和刑事司法中心的沃什伯恩说。“这减缓了他们的进步,意味着他们必须在监狱里呆更多的时间,这是不可接受的。”

 

“We would say that the quality of rehabilitation programming has always been subpar. The thought of it being diminished because of this virus is almost hard to fathom.”

“我们要说的是,康复计划的质量一直欠佳。因为这种病毒而减少的想法几乎难以理解。”

原文链接:https://www.sacbee.com/news/coronavirus/article244587752.html

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